History[ edit ] In the late s and early s, the developed countries of North America and Western Europe suffered economically in the face of stiff competition from Japan's ability to produce high-quality goods at competitive cost. For the first time since the start of the Industrial Revolutionthe United Kingdom became a net importer of finished goods.
This paper is meant to describe the eight elements comprising TQM. Key Elements TQM has been coined to describe a philosophy that makes quality the driving force behind leadership, design, planning, and improvement initiatives.
For this, TQM requires the help of those eight key elements. These elements can be divided into four groups according to their function.
Foundation — It includes: Ethics, Integrity and Trust. Building Bricks — It includes: Training, Teamwork and Leadership. Binding Mortar — It includes: Roof — It includes: Foundation TQM is built on a foundation of ethics, integrity and trust.
It fosters openness, fairness and sincerity and allows involvement by everyone. This is the key to unlocking the ultimate potential of TQM. These three elements move together, however, each element offers something different to the TQM concept. Ethics — Ethics is the discipline concerned with good and bad in any situation.
It is a two-faceted subject represented by organizational and individual ethics. Organizational ethics establish a business code of ethics that outlines guidelines that all employees are to adhere to in the performance of their work. Individual ethics include personal rights or wrongs.
Integrity — Integrity implies honesty, morals, values, fairness, and adherence to the facts and sincerity. The characteristic is what customers internal or external expect and deserve to receive. People see the opposite of integrity as duplicity.
TQM will not work in an atmosphere of duplicity. Trust — Trust is a by-product of integrity and ethical conduct. Without trust, the framework of TQM cannot be built. Trust fosters full participation of all members.
It allows empowerment that encourages pride ownership and it encourages commitment. It allows decision making at appropriate levels in the organization, fosters individual risk-taking for continuous improvement and helps to ensure that measurements focus on improvement of process and are not used to contend people.
Trust is essential to ensure customer satisfaction.
So, trust builds the cooperative environment essential for TQM. Bricks Basing on the strong foundation of trust, ethics and integrity, bricks are placed to reach the roof of recognition. Training — Training is very important for employees to be highly productive.
Supervisors are solely responsible for implementing TQM within their departments, and teaching their employees the philosophies of TQM. Training that employees require are interpersonal skills, the ability to function within teams, problem solving, decision making, job management performance analysis and improvement, business economics and technical skills.
During the creation and formation of TQM, employees are trained so that they can become effective employees for the company. Teamwork — To become successful in business, teamwork is also a key element of TQM.
With the use of teams, the business will receive quicker and better solutions to problems. Teams also provide more permanent improvements in processes and operations. In teams, people feel more comfortable bringing up problems that may occur, and can get help from other workers to find a solution and put into place.
There are mainly three types of teams that TQM organizations adopt: Quality improvement teams or excellence teams QITs — These are temporary teams with the purpose of dealing with specific problems that often recur. These teams are set up for period of three to twelve months.
Problem solving teams PSTs — These are temporary teams to solve certain problems and also to identify and overcome causes of problems. They generally last from one week to three months.Total quality management (TQM) practices can be described as best ways in which organisations and their employees undertake business activities in all key processes.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is the continual process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors in manufacturing, streamlining supply chain management, improving the customer experience.
Companies who adopt TQM, not only produce quality products but also are able to enhance their reputation for adopting the same. Since its introduction, TQM in the past few years has become an important part of the manufacturing industry.
It’s moved on from being optional to . Total Quality Management (TQM) is the continual process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors in manufacturing, streamlining supply chain management, improving the customer experience.
"Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Department of Defense is a strategy for continuously improving performance at every level, and in all areas of responsibility. It combines fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and specialized technical tools under a disciplined structure focused on continuously improving all processes.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or exceed customer expectations. This can be achieved by integrating all quality-related functions and processes throughout the company.