Received Jan 29; Accepted Jun 4. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background This study aimed to explore changes in clinical epidemiology and genotype distribution and their association among hospitalized children with rotavirus gastroenteritis after the introduction of vaccines.
Examples of the Effects of Adult Language on Cognition Effects of Labeling Objects on Inductive Reasoning Some kinds of categories—two round balls, for example—are fairly easy to form, such that even babies treat the objects as similar.
But many objects that adults view as members of the same category are perceptually dissimilar, and children would not, on their own, categorize them together. Some categories have very diverse members: Atypical members of categories—thinking of a penguin as a bird, for example—also are difficult for children to categorize on their own.
Hearing perceptually diverse objects called by the same label enables children to treat them as members of the same category, which in turn affects the kinds of inductive inferences children draw about them cf.
Even very young children will base their inductive inferences on the category to which objects belong rather than their perceptual features when the objects are labeled.
Providing a common label for perceptually disparate objects also is a way of transmitting cultural knowledge to children. This effect of labeling objects speaks to one of the ways in which ordinary interaction with babies enriches their cognitive development and early learning Graham et al.
While categorization has many benefits for developing inductive reasoning, it can also ultimately be associated with inferences that exaggerate differences between categories and similarities within categories.
This may be linked to some undesirable consequences, such as stereotyping or prejudice based on these inferences Master et al.
It is impossible for any individual to experience first-hand all of the exemplars of a category. The use of generics is thus an indispensable way of learning about the category as a whole.
Generics are a powerful way of conveying general facts, properties, or information about a category, and those generalizations often can stand even in the face of counterexamples Gelman, The National Academies Press.
This stability has many advantages, but as with categorization, it also can be problematic—for example, generic statements about social categories can reify the categories and beliefs about them. When an individual encounters members of a social category that do not share the relevant trait or behavior, those people may then be seen as exceptions but the generalization will still stand.
Properties conveyed by generics also are construed as central or essential to the category Cimpian and Markman, Four- and 5-year-old children given the same information conveyed using generic versus nongeneric phrases interpret the information quite differently.
Subtle differences in generic versus nongeneric language used to convey information to children can shape the kinds of generalizations they make, the strength of those generalizations, and the extent to which properties are considered central or defining of the category.
Here, too, generics can sometimes play an unwanted role Cimpian and Markman, Dweck and colleagues have shown that children who believe an ability is inherent and fixed are more likely to give up when faced with failure and to lose motivation for and interest in a task, while children who view an ability as malleable are more likely to take on the challenge and work to improve their skill.
Many of the foundations of sophisticated forms of learning, including those important to academic success, are established in the earliest years of life. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Many of these concepts describe cognitive processes that are implicit.
By contrast with the explicit knowledge that older children and adults can put into words, implicit knowledge is tacit or nonconscious understanding that cannot readily be consciously described see, e. Examples of implicit knowledge in very young children include many of the early achievements discussed above, such as their implicit theories of living things and of the human mind and their nonconscious awareness of the statistical frequency of the associations among speech sounds in the language they are hearing.
Not all early learning is implicit, of course. Very young children are taking significant strides in their explicit knowledge of language, the functioning of objects, and the characteristics of people and animals in the world around them.
Thus early learning occurs on two levels: This distinction between implicit and explicit learning can be confusing to early childhood practitioners and parentswho often do not observe or recognize evidence for the sophisticated implicit learning—or even the explicit learning—taking place in the young children in their care.
Instead, toddlers and young children seem highly distractable, emotional, and not very capable of managing their impulses. All of these observations about young children are true, but at the same time, their astonishing growth in language skills, their very different Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: This point is especially important because the cognitive abilities of young children are so easily underestimated.
In the past, for example, the prevalent belief that infants lack conceptual knowledge meant that parents and practitioners missed opportunities to explore with them cause and effect, number, or symbolic play.
In light of these observations, how do early educators contribute to the cognitive growth of children in their first 3 years? One way is by providing appropriate support for the learning that is occurring in these very young children see, e.
Using an abundance of child-directed language during social interaction, playing counting games e. The implications for instructional practices and curricula for educators working with infants and toddlers are discussed further in Chapter 6.
Another way that educators contribute to the cognitive growth of infants and toddlers is through the emotional support they provide Jamison et al. Emotional support of this kind is important not only as a positive Page Share Cite Suggested Citation:The normal assessment data for the infant at 12 months of age is that the infant has doubled their birth weight at 12 months of age.
The mother’s reports that the infant is drinking 60 mLs per kilogram of its body weight and the fact that the infant had grown ¼ inch since last .
Chapter The Child With a Skin Condition Elsevier items and derived items by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.
The nurse is careful to apply only the prescribed amount of ointment to the skin of a 2-month-old because the infants skin, compared to the adults, has: a. Less perfusion b. Greater moisture c. More .
Chapter 15 Perceptual Development Chapter Outline: I. Introduction II. Changes over Life than the plain gray field. As you can see, this experiment here could be used to test the infants visual acuity.
If the infant can see the grating, the infant will have a preference for the grating. it takes an object of 30 arcmin for an infant. Only a few studies have examined CoC and child outcomes, and the results of these few studies are inconclusive. Early studies documented positive relations between stability in caregivers and child outcomes through 30 months of age (Howes and Hamilton, , .
15, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months Immunizations Toddlers need boosters of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP), H. influenza, polio, and hepatitis B (if not received at 6 mo) by 18 mo. Need initial dose of MMR, Var, and hep A vaccines. The relative dearth of scientific evidence to guide the treatment of early childhood depression leaves the clinician with the challenge of attempting to ameliorate the symptoms and suffering of the young child and family while also doing no harm.